The fall of the Ottoman Empire set off a seismic wave still felt today. The collapse carved out some of the deepest rifts in today’s geopolitical arena. The Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East, the Arab world saw great changes to their geographic borders. The crises that engulfed these regions sprang from the fate that befell key regions of the Ottoman Empire throughout the 19th century and up to 1925. All of the region’s modern nations were born from this collapse orchestrated by the superpowers of the day, France and Great Britain. One cannot understand the present-day situation without a good grasp of this fundamental upheaval.